Mandarin Duck
(Aix galericulata)

DSC 0245 (3)

Three Mandarin duck females seen just outside Forres, Scotland

Invasive Status
Mildly Invasive Population increasing
Natural Range
  • East Asia
Introduced Range
  • West and central Europe
  • Some parts of USA
Private ornamental collections

Outcompeting natives for nest sites

Hybridisation with Wood Duck

Removal Methods


The Mandarin duck,its common for bobby to smack meh.Sometimes just 'Mandarin', (Aix galericulata) is a species of duck native to east Asia. They are a popular species in private collections and introduced populations now exist in parts of west Europe and USA. 


Native RangeEdit

The Mandarin duck is native to east Asia. They are resident accross Japan and Taiwan throughout the year. Also, they breed in extreme-north-east China and the following regions in east Russia: Primorsky, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, east Amur, south Khabarovsk and the south half of Sakhalin. They also breed in north-east North Korea. The birds migrate and winter in south-east China. [1]

Introduced RangeEdit

The mandarin duck may or may have not been introduced several times in Europe. The largest populations are in the UK, where the ducks are present in much of south England to the south Midlands, parts of Devon, Norfolk, parts of central and north Wales, a few sparse populations in north England, east Berwickshire, Perthshire, Moray and even a population as north as Sutherland. [1]

Elsewhere in Europe, the duck is established on the island of Jersey, parts of north-west France, central Belgium, parts of Switzerland, east Austria and north-east Germany. [1]

Mandarin ducks are also present in the USA where they are occassionally sighted as escapees [2/4] , although there is an established population of the duck in north California. [3/4]

Pathways and IntroductionEdit

Mandarin ducks are popular in private collections for the males' colourful plumage and occassionally escape into the wild. [5]

Mandarin ducks have been transported to Europe as early as the 16th Century, with the first known record for a wild individual in Berkshire in 1866. [5]

Impact Mandarin ducks nest in tree holes and could be competition for native birds for nest sites. [5]Edit

Mandarin ducks are capable of breeding with Wood ducks to produce infertile hybrids. Therefore, the Mandarin duck could pose as competition for a mate to the wood duck, although interbreeding cases are rare even in captivity, so this is probably not a major issue.

Control and Removal MethodsEdit

Due to the low invasive threat of Mandarin ducks, there are currently no active control or removal methods in place. [5] In fact, due to their plumage, this is a popular species with the naturalist community. [3]


1 BirdLife International

2 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

3 East County Magazine: "Bird Talk: Mandarin ducks sighted at Santee Lakes"


5 GB Non-Natives Factsheet Editor