|Mildly Invasive||Population increasing|
Outcompeting natives for food
Ingestion of and damage to crops
Culling has been suggested
The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), also called the ring-necked parakeet, is perhaps the most widely introduced of all parrot species. They are very widespread but are generally concentrated to cities.
Rose-ringed parakeets are native to east and a patch of west Pakistan, almost the whole of India, the whole of Sri Lanka, the whole of Bangladesh, and extreme north-east Myanmar.
It is also native to a band of central-north Africa running from Senegal to Guinea, across through southern Nigeria and northern Cameroon, to north-east Ethiopia, Djibouti and extreme north-west Somalia, with an additional branch reaching into Uganda.
Rose-ringed parakeets are present in many major cities in western Europe. They are found in London, UK (with an additional population in Kent, with multiple other short-term populations), four cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht and The Hague - 10,000 birds in total in 2010) in the Netherlands, Brussels in Belgium, all major urban areas of the Rhine in Germany, Paris in France, Rome, Genoa and Palermo in Italy, Barcelona and Seville in Spain and Lisbon in Portugal.
Populations also exist in Ankara in Turkey, Tunis in Tunisia, Tripoli in Libya, Tehran in Iran and throughout Lebanon, Israel, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman.
There is also a small population living in Australia and some parts of India outside the native range,
This section is speculative and lacks scientific evidence.
Due to the bird's native climate, it may not endure colder climates. Whilst population concentrations around cities are largely due to the nature of the releases, these parakeets may also prefer the warmer microclimates of cities. However, it is also likely that the birds will acclimatize and spread beyond the cities.
Pathways and IntroductionEdit
The main corridor for rose-ringed parakeets is via the pet trade, as their bright colours make these parrots popular pets. They occassional escape, resulting in wild populations.
A study of bird feeder visitors suggests that birds visit feeders more briefly and with more nervous behaviour when a parakeet is present. This is evidence that the parakeets can outcompete native birds.